PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS:
Chemical plants protection means are widely used in Uzbekistan’s
agricultural sector. In 1980s annually more up to 100-120 tones of pesticides
were applied with more than half of the quantity represented by persistent
organic pollutants (POPs).
Within last decade pesticides application
policies have been substantially modified. New generation of pesticides was
introduced to Uzbekistan’s market for agricultural chemicals with new pesticides
marked by high efficiency ratios, small dozes required to achieve maximum
results and limited adverse side effects affecting people and the environment.
Comprehensive control system was established to execute control over
registration of imported and locally produced dangerous chemical substances.
Production and application of 22 types of persistent organic pollutants,
including DDT and GCCG, was banned.
Despite these actions, in Uzbekistan
still there are significant quantities of outdated unused pesticides subject to
utilization or conservation.
Key POPs-related pesticides pollution
sources include mineral fertilizers warehouses, long-term poisonous substances
storage facilities, former agricultural aviation air fields. Polychlorine
biphenils are classified as industrial chemicals. They are widely used as
additives to electrical machinery oils, hydraulic machinery and other types of
equipment thanks to an array of beneficial physical properties, such as fire
resistance, low electricity penetration rates, high resistance to heat.
Polychlorine biphenils are not produced in Uzbekistan. However, for many years
Chyriksk Transformer Plant actively utilized additives to transformer oils.
Currently there are about 400 kilograms of additives still stored at Chyriksk
Plant. However, in Uzbekistan there is no information regarding total amounts of
oil additives in electric equipment and industrial wastes.
identification of persistent organic pollutants in the environment is
challenging and that is why systematic monitoring is not conducted. Based on
data compiled by Central Asian branch of the Hydro Meteorology Scientific
Research Institute, POPs were identified in all environmental components,
including soils, air, water and seabed accumulations.
As for persistent
organic pollutants classified as byproducts, analytical control of these
substances is impossible because ecological analysis laboratories lack
appropriate equipment. Uzbekistan does not conduct monitoring and research
related to these types of persistent organic pollutants.
In 2001 the
Republic of Uzbekistan in technical cooperation with UNEP developed an inventory
of outdated, unused and prohibited pesticides.
Compiled analytical data
indicates that 1,432 tones of pesticides are classified as outdated or banned
pesticides including 118 tones classified as persistent organic pollutants.
Poisonous substances conservation facilities contain more than 15 thousand tones
of pesticides banned or not registered in Uzbekistan.
unused and banned pesticides can be divided into the following categories based
on their chemical contents:
- 26.2% - chlorine organic substances
31.8% - phosphate organic substances
- 42.0% - represent other classes of
In Uzbekistan there are 13 poisonous substances
conservation facilities covering the total of 60 hectares. Most of the
facilities are filled with pesticides, primarily, persistent organic pollutants,
covered with concrete blocks and soil. However, there are, also, partially
filled open facilities such as Tuprakkaly storage facility in Khorezm region
having profound adverse impacts on the environment.
Since 1972 poisonous
substances storage facilities contain outdated prohibited pesticides. Last
registered deposits into the facilities date back to 1993. Currently available
data suggests that in total facilities contain 15 thousand tones of pesticides
(20 to 1100 tones in each of the facilities). These figures include large
quantities of persistent organic pesticides, such as DDT and GCCG.
assess current status of the poisonous substances storage facilities and their
environmental impact we analyzed data presented in the framework of
Environmental Pollution Sources Monitoring initiative. Research indicates that
several storage facilities serve as POPs pollution sources for soils,
underground waters and adjacent territories. Located in the sands of Kyzylkum
desert close to “Pitnyak” waste collector Yanygar storage facility (Khorezm
region) poses significant danger to the environment. In soils GCCG
concentrations are 17 times higher than maximum acceptable concentration limits,
DDT concentrations are 30 times higher. In soils adjacent to a storage facility
in Djizak region DDT concentrations are 20 times greater than maximum acceptable
In Uzbekistan there are more than 450 former
agricultural aviation air fields. They serve as major sources of pollution by
chlorine-based pesticides. 434 air fields have been evaluated leading to
assessment of corresponding POPs pollution levels. In 149 cases pollution levels
are 20 times higher than acceptable parameters. Air fields exhibiting
particularly high pollution levels have been included into the Monitoring
program ensuring on-going evaluation of pollution parameters.
has established the legal framework and adopted series of legislative acts
governing production, exports, imports and application of pesticides classified
as persistent organic pollutants.
* The Law “On agricultural plants
protection” aims to ensure protection of the environment and public health from
adverse influences of chemical plants protection means.
* Decree N33 adopted
by Uzbekistan’s Cabinet of Ministers on January 20, 1999 “On issues related to
organization and activities of the State Commission on the use of chemical
substances and plants protection”
*Decree N 151 adopted by the Cabinet of
Ministers on April 19, 2001 “On regulation of ecologically dangerous products
and wastes shipments to and from the territory of the Republic of
POPs regulation issues constitute a significant part of
Uzbekistan’s National environmental protection action plan and “Uzbekistan’s
environmental protection program of actions for the period of
Following an initiative introduced by Uzbekistan’s State
Committee on Nature, chemical plants protection substances covered by 1998
Rotterdam Convention became a part of Uzbekistan’s National “Registry of banned
and limited application active and inactive ingredients of plants protection
means” adopted on March 28, 2002 at a meeting of State Chemicals Commission
under the auspices of Uzbekistan’s Cabinet of Ministers. In accordance with this
international Convention, the list of dangerous chemical substances contains 22
pesticides. All of these substances are persistent chlorine-based pesticides.
Many countries recognize these substances as harmful for the environment and
public health and many of them are banned.
To protect public health and
environment from the impacts of persistent organic pollutants special measures
are undertaken to decrease concentration of particular pollutants causing the
Uzbekistan annually updates the “List of chemical and
biological plants protection means cleared for application”. The country’s State
Chemicals Commission develops the list based on tests and recommendations
provided by agricultural scientific research institutes, units of the State
Committee on Nature and medical research centers.
institutes operated by Uzbekistan’s Ministry of Healthcare conduct thorough
hygiene and toxicological evaluation of new pesticides offered for registration
in the Republic. Pesticide tests are accompanied by development of
scientifically grounded hygiene norms and regulations for each individual
substance. Chief State Sanitary Doctor of Uzbekistan’s Ministry of Healthcare
approves proposed substance application regulations. Hygiene norms and
regulations for chemical substances used in Uzbekistan help to ensure effective
and safe application of the substances accounting for the country’s unique
Conservation of dangerous chemical substances will
require technical and financial support to be provided by international
organizations. Sufficient support can be secured only if the country signs the
If Uzbekistan joins
the Stockholm Convention the country’s dangerous chemical substances management
capabilities will be expanded by:
Currently in Uzbekistan appropriate agencies realize
acuteness of environmental and health-related threats represented by persistent
organic pollutants and consultations are taking place with participation of
Uzbekistan’s national government representatives. The fact that amounts of
financial contributions expected from the Convention’s signers have not been
determined represents one of the key factors hindering progress in the
discussions. Respective amounts of contributions will be determined not earlier
than at the first conference of participating states.
- Establishing the National registry of dangerous
persistent organic pollutants ensuring compliance with international standards
- Developing and implementing an action plan aimed at
reduction or elimination of certain types of environmental pollution based on
new technological applications, financial and technical support and cooperation
in the framework of the Convention
- Gaining access to international databases on ecological,
technical and economic parameters of persistent organic pollutants and by
developing alternatives to persistent organic
By K. Sadykov,
Chief, Section of the State
specialized analytical control inspection,
Uzbekistan’s State Committee on